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2. De Bellis, M.D.; Clark, D.B.; Beers, S.R.; et al. Hippocampal volume in adolescent-onset alcohol use disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 157(5):737–744, 2000.

3. Brown, S.A.; Tapert, S.F.; Granholm, E.; and Delis, D.C. Neurocognitive functioning of adolescents: Effects of protracted alcohol use. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 24(2): 164–171, 2000.

4. Abernathy, K., Chandler, L. J., & Woodward, J. J. (2010). ALCOHOL AND THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX. International Review of Neurobiology, 91, 289-320.


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2. Grant, B.F., and Dawson, D.A. Age of onset of alcohol use and its association with DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: Results from the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. Journal of Substance Abuse 9:103–110, 1997.

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7. Enoch, M. A., & Goldman, D., The genetics of alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Curr Psychiatry Rep, 2001. 3(2): p. 144-51.


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How to Prevent Underage Drinking

1. Grant, BF and Dawson, DA. Journal of Substance Abuse 9:103-110, 1997.

Have Fun

1. The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 2011.

Be Aware

1. Bach/Harrison, “Utah Student Health and Risk Prevention Survey,” 2006.

2. Institutes of Medicine, National Research Council, “Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility,” p. 8, 10, 11, 14, 17.

Stay Involved

1. Shanklin, S.L., et. al. (2007). 2005 Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Atlanta, GA. Retrieved from: